Virtual reality (VR)

The availability of a wide range of big data applications will lead to opportunities for port operators, logistics firms, and service providers to take advantage of simulation software. In this respect, different port operations could be modelled to analyze operational flows, identify the possible barriers, and evaluate various scenarios of design and throughput. The simulation will play a more important role when the automated equipment and robotic machinery are used in ports and logistics sectors. This helps in understanding the impact of these technological developments as well as how to integrate them into terminal processes and operations.

VR processes can enhance maritime companies’ training programs and also improve ship design techniques and engineering process design by enabling evaluation of ship interiors remotely and virtually. In 2015 the BIMCO/ICS survey forecast a shortfall of around 16,500 officers in maritime but a need for an additional 147,500 officers by 2025 to service the world merchant fleet. VR will play a major, increasing role in training these new officers.

For an efficient synchronization of port and logistics activities through simulation, a technology that will support a lot is virtual reality (VR). It assists via expansion of physical reality by adding layers of computer-generated information to the real environment, to support such operation simulations. In a port atmosphere, it can be achieved by visualizing enhanced feeds from infrastructure, port equipment, automated vehicles and various types of drones.

Furthermore, by providing a “virtual representation of physical assets”, the cloud-empowered digital twin helps to form a supply chain that is adaptable and ready to evolve, as well as ports and terminals which expect the unexpected.


Spinview:  VISUAL IMMERSION – Putting your world in their hands by virtual reality

Spinview company believes that real-world business challenges can be solved with visual immersion.

 The platform provided by Spinview allows you to bring together any teamenhance any place and help you test and iterate productsservices and communications to find the most effective route to market.

Enhance Your Places

You can use Spinview to create stunning, accurate visualizations of entire environments to engage your clients, teams, and customers in immersive virtual reality.

By creating a digital twin image of the real world, you’re no longer limited by what is physically possible. Costly and sometimes dangerous site visits can be minimized and planned with precision.

You will also enjoy a seamless, central record of all activity from all teams accessing the space and will be able to manage all your facilities remotely.

You can even overlay your environment with live data to see the effect it’s having on your space and respond accordingly. All without opening a door.


Click on the below link to watch a short introduction:



Do you want to see how Spinview can help you?

Click on the below links


Delighted to announce our partnership with Q595 for our Agority service – combining professional leadership and advanced communication training with the advanced visual communications afforded by virtual reality. Spinview is huge advocates of workplace efficiency and this partnership extends our service to ensure that practical coaching can be achieved in the digital age – especially prevalent in 2020 not just for our sustainability targets but with the business impacting constraints of Covid-19. To see more of what Agority can do for you see our video and detail in the first comment or reach out to anyone at Spinview or Q595 for more information.

To see more of what Agority can do for you see our video and detail in the first comment or reach out to anyone at Spinview or Q595 for more information.


As the world looks to mitigate climate change and limit the impact of airborne health risks, international business faces the challenge of how to continue to get the best out of people separated by geography.

It’s hard to consider a drive across town, much less boarding an international flight and, if these things are affecting us individually, then the impact to business is multiplied many times over. Barriers such as these do not stop the needs of business, they just change them – significantly. How do we adapt to these changing circumstances? How does international business move beyond the need to travel?

Whilst there is no shortage of video conferencing apps or platforms and the last ten years has seen an explosion of different offerings, enhancing togetherness, providing the true sense of presence and improving user focus is still missing. None so far has managed to allow people to share more than their face, voice and screen.

That is until now.

In the race to adapt to these changing circumstances, Spinview and Q595 have joined forces to support international organisations in finding new ways to be together, communicate together and train together when they can’t physically be in the same location.

For those responsible for training, learning & development or organising international meetings, Spinview’s multi user Virtual Reality service, Agority combined with Q595’s expertise of running workshops and learning programs through VR, provides a cost-effective solution that’s also kinder to our people and planet.

“Let‘s turn challenges into opportunities. We have been experimenting for years with VR and blended learning. It works – it creates a new sense of togetherness and focus, even beyond the classroom.“ says Tobias Kiefer, CEO of Q595.

Spinview’s Agority is a virtual reality space where it is possible to connect with up to 8 people across the world and this virtual collaboration which combines the subtlety of gesture and body language, brings back the sense of presence and of having shared a physical space with another human being – so important when coaching leadership.

Q595 provides leadership solutions to organisations in the area of Leadership Training Programs, Advisory Services and Coaching. Their Leadership Academy is focused on Leadership Effectiveness, Collaboration in Teams, Personal Impact and Sales. Q595 offers Leadership Coach Training and other programs as fully blended learning journeys.

The partnership between Spinview and Q595 offers a powerful proposition that video conferencing can’t compete with, not just for the humanity of the interaction, but also through the additional connection of its intuitive media and document sharing platform.

With Spinview’s Agority platform, a Q595 facilitator is with you and it feels as present as if you were together in the same room. Click here to see Agority in action. Linda Wade, CEO said “We are excited to bring Agority to a new audience, enhancing global training with the subtleties of human interaction in order to transcend geography. We are proud to make our technology accessible for everyone and this new partnership extends our
ambition to fuse the real and digital worlds for a sustainable future.”

In sharing this partnership, Spinview and Q595 hope to support people around the world in connecting with more humility and focus, when it is needed now, more than ever. For any questions or to arrange a virtual tour, please contact and

by & filed under Project news, Results.

As DocksThe Future enters the last stretch of the project, the partners met in Genova, to work on the project’s upcoming results. The meeting of the project’s partners was held in Genova 5-6 Feb 2020.

Minutes of the Meeting for the first day – 5th February 2020 – are  summarised as per below:

At the beginning of the meeting it was stressed the fact that, at least for part of the topics, the full set ot DTF tool (PCI, DSS, transferability) should be usable at the end of the project.    

WP3– ISL presented the progress and updates on WP3. In order to support the Task 3.5 – PCI Assessment (Evaluation of results of the selected cloud clustered projects by means of the Projects Common Index), the Consortium agrees on supporting the data gathering for D3.5 as a joint exercise between all partners .

WP5-Unige presented the progress and updates on WP5. Unige stressed that the outcome is to identify how much of a measure is used within a SO and how much of the SO is covered by the project and its measures, also up to the level of tactical objectives.  

Network of Excellence–Circle presented the Network of Excellence, main principles, functioning, goals of the network and the analysis phases that conducted to the proposed structure. NoE will be a voluntary cooperative platform gathering the most innovative ports that want to team up and take actions to help the maritime community achieving the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, following the roadmap set by the new 2050 European Green Deal. The NoE is:

  • A tool supporting ports to develop innovative projects to achieve their sustainable goals targets, using the opportunities brought by the EU Green Deal Policy.
  • A platform to promote their ideas of the port of the future, implementing innovative co-funded projects and driving the policy changes.
  • A tool to enrich the dialogue with other organizations within the Network or with other European Technology Platforms/International Associations/ Ports and maritime clusters.

The first day of the meeting ended with the presentation by Circle on the main outcomes coming from the first ICC and an overview of the Green Deal concept.


Minutes of the Meeting for the second day -6th February 2020 – are  summarised as per below:

The meeting started with the Project Management presentation by Circle. The topics covered and the agreed actions are as follows:

  • Analysis of the Project Officer recommendations and agreed actions on how to answer :
    • Include the AIVP survey in D5.5- and a reference to the AIVP survey in D3.5 , and the minutes of the first ICC conf call in D5.5.
    • Invite some neigh countries representative to the next workshop with experts ( asking also to AIVP ). Engage MED 
  • Cooperation with RIAs: before asking for the intervention of the PO to stimulate the feedback of the RIAs
  • Potential participation to the IAPH2020 World Ports Conference in Antwerp (March 2020).
  • Next workshop with experts
  • Final Conference


WP4 – Magellan presented the progress and updates on WP4. Main points:

  • DTF at ALICE ETP stand during TRA2020 in further collaboration with Univ. of Turku on the 29th of April (to be confirmed)
  • DTF in Helsinki TRA2020 under the subject
  • More interactive but shorter conference TEN-T days in Croatia on 13-15 May PoF network stand
  • Final report June 2020




La Spezia Navy Base | 25th June 2020


The conference&expo “Driving The Change in Shipping & Logistics: Towards the EU Green Deal “ is one of the key moments of the prestigious event SEAFUTURE, the business convention for maritime and dual use technologies attended by 10.000 participants, with 200 exhibiting companies in the 9.000 sqm expo area.

Designed by Circle Group, the conference will be attended by high-level institutional and industrial representatives: around 200 operators, coming from all over the world and will offer


where to meet prospect partners/customers and schedule ONE2ONE MEETINGS through a dedicated platform*

Hot topics:

    – supplying clean, affordable and secure energy
    – building and renovating port infrastructures in an energy and resource efficient way
    – mobilising the industry for a clean and circular economy













*the matchmaking platform is reserved to exhibitors

Source: OnTheMosWaysoftheSea

TRA, the Transport Research Arena, is the largest European research and technology conference on transport and mobility. In 2020, TRA takes place in Helsinki, Finland. Themed Rethinking transport – towards clean and inclusive mobility, TRA2020 brings together experts from around the world to discuss the newest innovations and future of mobility and transport.



Registration link :

Key-Note speakers at TRA2020

Nina Kopola

Nina Kopola

Director General

Business Finland

View bio

François-Régis Le Tourneau

François-Régis Le Tourneau

ALICE chair

Corporate Supply Chain Standards and Prospective Director, L’Oréal

View bio

Lars Stenqvist

Lars Stenqvist

Executive Vice President, Volvo Group Trucks Technology

Chief Technology Officer Volvo Group

View bio


DocksTheFuture will define the Port of the Future, meant as a near future (2030) which should face challenges related to simplification and digitalization of processes, dredging, emission reduction, energy transition, electrification, smart grids, port-city interface and the use of renewable energy management.

In particular, DocksTheFuture will:

  • refine and tune the Port of Future concepts, the Port of the Future topics and their related targets in 2030 and the list of projects to be clustered together with the RIA retained proposals 
  • identify appropriate KPIs (“Key Performance Indicators”) and relevant monitoring and evaluation of results of actions leading to the “Port of the Future Road Map for 2030” that will include a number of exploitation elements such as tools for evaluation and transferability of Port of the Future solutions, R&D and policy recommendations, training packages and the creation of a “Port of the Future Network of Excellence”.

DocksTheFuture will be heavily promoted at Transport Research Arena 2020 (, on 27-30 of April.  DocksTheFuture will be Presented by Prof.Nicola Sacco , from the University of Genova,  on the DSS tool. DocksTheFuture will stand in the ALICE- ETP stand.


The description of our session is as per below:


Despite being essential for the European economy, influencing modal decisions and the whole transport chain, Ports create externalities that must be mitigated. Several challenges arise in the quest for the modernisation of Ports, among which, the need for emission reduction, sustainability, port-city interface and digitalisation of processes. This workshop, organised by ETP ALICE, four Horizon 2020 funded projects (DocksTheFuture, COREALIS, PortForward & Pixel) and an INTERREG project (ResQU2), will focus on bringing together different perspectives, stemming from the several tools and technologies developed within the scope of the projects, which will greatly contribute towards the Port(s) of the Future vision.



Seaports, as part of urban centers, play a major role in the cultural, social and economic life of the cities in which they are located, and through the links, they provide to the outside world. Port-cities in Europe have faced significant change, first with the loss of heavy industry, emergence of Eastern European democracies, and the widening of the European Community (now European Union) during the second half of the twentieth century, and more recently through drivers to change including the global Sustainable Development Agenda and the European Union Circular Economy Agenda.

Angela Carpenter • Rodrigo Lozano, Editors

For more information relating to the book at the Springer website or to buy please  refer to:


This book examines the role of modern seaports in Europe and considers how port-cities are responding to these major drivers for change. It discusses the broad issues facing European Sea Ports, including port life cycles, spatial planning, and societal integration. May 2019 saw the 200th anniversary of the first steam ship to cross the Atlantic between the US and England, and it is just over 60 years since the invention of the modern intermodal shipping container – both drivers of change in the maritime and ports industry. Increasing movements of people, e.g. through low-cost cruises to port cities, can play a major role in changing the nature of such a city and impact on the lives of the people living there. This book brings together original research by both long-standing and younger scholars from multiple disciplines and builds upon the wider discourse about sea ports, port cities, and sustainability.



1 Introduction, Chapter Summary, and Conclusions from the Angela Carpenter & Rodrigo Lozano
2 Port-City Redevelopment and Sustainable Development by Paul Fenton
3 Proposing a Framework for Anchoring Sustainability Relationships Between Ports and Cities by Angela Carpenter & Rodrigo Lozano
4 Port-City Redevelopment and the Circular Economy Agenda in Europe by Reza Karimpour, Fabio Ballini & Aykut I. Ölcer
5 Technological Change and Logistics Development in European Ports by Michele Acciaro, Katharina Renken & Naouar El Khadiri
6 From Planning the Port/City to Planning the Port-City: Exploring the Economic Interface in European Port Cities by Karel B. J. Van den Berghe & Tom A. Daamen
7 Spatial Restructuring of Port Cities: Periods from Inclusion o Fragmentation and Re-integration of City and Port in Hamburg by Dirk Schubert
8 Governance and Planning Issues in European Waterfront Redevelopment 1999–2019 by José M. Pagés Sánchez & Tom A. Daamen
9 Proposing a Holistic Framework to Assess Sustainability Performance in Seaports by Lea Fobbe, Rodrigo Lozano & Angela Carpenter
10 Analysing Port Community System Network Evolution by Bening Mayanti, Jussi Kantola, Matteo Natali & Juha Kytola
11 Touristification of European Port-Cities: Impacts on Local Populations and Cultural Heritage by María J. Andrade & João Pedro Costa
12 Analysing Organisational Change Management in Seaports: Stakeholder Perception, Communication, Drivers for, and Barriers to Sustainability at the Port of Gä Rodrigo Lozano, Angela Carpenter & Kaisu Sammalisto
13 Integrating Governance and Sustainability: A Proposal Towards More Sustainable Ports by María Ángeles Fernández-Izquierdo, Idoya Ferrero-Ferrero & María Jesús Muñoz-Torres
14 The Changing Interplay Between European Cities and Intermodal Transport Networks (1970s–2010s) by Justin Berli, César Ducruet, Romain Martin & Sevil Seten
15 The Separation of Ports from Cities: The Case of Rotterdam by Carola Hein & Paul Th. van de Laar
16 Integrated Port Cities: The Case of Hamburg by Michele Acciaro, Katharina Renken & Christopher Dirzka
17 Societal Integration of Ports and Cities: Case Study on Spanish Ports by Nuria Nebot Gómez de Salazar & Carlos Rosa-Jiménez
18 Socio-economic Costs and Benefits of Seaport Infrastructure Development for a Local Environment. The Case of the Port and the City of Świnoujście by Izabela Kotowska, Marta Mańkowska & Michał Pluciński




Chapter 1 – Introduction, Chapter Summary,  and Conclusions from the Book
by Angela Carpenter and Rodrigo Lozano

Currently, European ports, and the cities within which they are located, face significant changing economic circumstances, together with technological, social and cultural pressures for change, as they seek to become more sustainable. Drivers for change include the global United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda and the European Union Circular Economy Agenda. As major players in the cultural, social and economic life of cities, ports can provide economic well-being and support a strong identity for those cities and their local communities. City sustainability requires elements including conservation of resources and minimisation of waste while supporting and sustaining the local population through the provision of services such as housing and public transport. Ports and cities have therefore come to understand that in order to grow and become more sustainable, they have to work collaboratively to achieve their individual and combined goals.


Chapter 2 – Port-City Redevelopment and Sustainable Development
by Paul Fenton

This chapter presents an overview of recent literature on sustainable development in port cities and highlights particular challenges for port-city redevelopment. These include: the impacts on cities of air or noise pollution; green8 house gas emissions; infrastructure challenges (including energy supply and inland transportation); urban development in and around port areas; plus formal and informal mechanisms or instruments used to alleviate negative impacts or resolve problems related to these challenges. The chapter then considers the case of Stockholm to illustrate how such challenges are manifested at the local level. The Stockholm case highlights, for example, the challenge of integrating inland waterways and short-sea shipping; diverse challenges related to passenger travel (cruise ships, ferries, small boats, etc.) including energy supply, waste and wastewater, use of chemicals; relocation of cargo terminals and other port operations outside of the city and related impacts on urban infrastructure; and competition for urban space, both in and around port areas and in waterfront areas. Such examples illustrate patterns which are described in wider literature and observed in other cities. The chapter then outlines the City of Stockholm’s approach to handling such challenges whilst aspiring to achieve sustainable development, using the literature review as a framework to indicate potential discrepancies, problems or opportunities for Stockholm and other port cities. The chapter provides some recommendations for port cities working to improve environmental quality and achieving sustainable development.


Chapter 3 – Proposing a Framework for Anchoring Sustainability Relationships Between Ports and Cities
by Angela Carpenter and Rodrigo Lozano

Seaports are important players in the world, with a key role in global maritime trade and the movement of people. Historically, many cities grew up alongside ports, gaining economic benefits from the flow of goods and from the migration of people seeking work and improved economic circumstances. Port Cities are some of the most economically strong and competitive cities in the world. However, a weakening of the ties between ports and cities has been identified over recent decades. This chapter analyses how ports and cities might work together, through a collaborative approach, to become a more sustainable port-city. A review of literature on ports and sustainability, cities and sustainability, and collaboration between ports and cities, identified what they can do to become more sustainable. A framework for anchoring sustainability between ports and cities was developed to help them collaborate to become more sustainable as part of a joint system, showing that integration of the sustainability aspects of economic viability, environmental orientation, and social orientation is necessary to achieve a holistic port-city. To become more sustainable, ports and cities should work together in a collaborative way so that both can benefit moving forward.


Chapter 4 – Port-City Redevelopment and the Circular Economy Agenda in Europe
by Reza Karimpour, Fabio Ballini and Aykut I. Ölcer

In the era of globalisation, our world is in transition and there are challenges every day, such as climate change, and natural resource depletion. These environmental challenges threaten our lives and necessitate taking measures to transition toward resilient and reliable low-carbon developments. In this context, sustainability has recently gained substantial attention across sectors. In the face of increasing growth in the world economy, together with natural resource depletion, there is a need for new economic approaches. As a response to the improvement in resource performance, economies have started to explore ways not only to reuse products but also to restore more precious material and energy inputs. The concept of a ‘Circular Economy’ (CE) can promise a move to sustainability in businesses and economies. Sustainable relations between port city stakeholders is one of the emerging sectors. However, globally, port cities are within an economic system that is structured on the linear ‘take-make-dispose’ model, not sustainable models. During the last two decades, ports and their urban areas have been increasingly facing environmental challenges. Ports can have significant environmental impacts due to the types of activities that take place in them, resulting in negative externalities such as air and water pollution that mirror the destructive linear economy models at port-cities. Continual globalisation based on trade liberalisation, with its increasing cargo transport, has resulted in a significant increase in pressures on port infrastructure and city resources, which should be addressed in a sustainable way. A limited number of studies on European port cities’ sustainability have focused on ports under the CE approach, specifically within the ports’ waste management and energy efficiency context. This chapter reviews of ports and development, city and development, and explores Port-City redevelopment within the CE agenda that has been undertaken in the context of European ports. The review identifies what some European port cities have been doing to become more sustainable, with the help of a CE approach. It discusses challenges and potentials in European port cities and concludes on how ports are currently realising the potential of CE strategies, in particular for redevelopment and also competition in the market. Furthermore, it identifies how EU ports have voiced a need for further regulation to support the transition to the circular economy.


Chapter 5 – Technological Change and Logistics Development in European Ports
by Michele Acciaro, Katharina Renken and Naouar El Khadiri

Digital technologies are a key element in the logistics sector development. The so-called digital revolution that began in the 1980s, on the basis of the increasingly widespread use of automation, artificial intelligence and robotics in production processes, is changing the face of world logistics, a change often referred to as Logistics 4.0. Building on the impact of digitalisation on other sectors, port cities are also expected to see the emergence of new business models in the coming years, made possible by the advancement of digital technologies. Some researchers and practitioners even foresee the development of a global cargo handling system similar to the Internet, called Physical Internet (PI), in which goods would be moved seamlessly on an intermodal network at very low costs thanks to state-of-the-art data management technologies. The development of a PI-based logistics model requires new methods of monitoring and managing data, on the physical characteristics of the goods, as well as on the financial flows and traceability of the products; and ports are likely to play a critical role in favouring the uptake of such data collections and use. One of the most promising enablers to this vision is blockchain, a technology that would make it possible to document an increasingly large number of characteristics of a product or a commodity. The shipping sector cannot be caught unprepared, and adequate support is also needed inside ports. This chapter reviews the current technology and digitalisation trends in ports, advancing hypotheses on how they are likely to change port-city cargo—but also people—mobility and influence port logistics.


Chapter 6 – From Planning the Port/City to Planning the Port-City: Exploring the Economic Interface in European Port Cities
by Karel B. J. Van den Berghe and Tom A. Daamen

In the last three decades, planning agencies of most ports have institutionally evolved into a (semi-) independent port authority. The rationale behind this process is that port authorities are able to react more quickly to changing logistical and spatial preferences of maritime firms, hence increasing the competitiveness of ports. Although these dedicated port authorities have proven to be largely successful, new economic, social, and environmental challenges are quickly catching up on these port governance models, and particularly leads to the (spatial) policy ‘conflicts’ between port and city. This chapter starts by assessing this conflict and argues that the conflict is partly a result of dominant—often also academic—spatial representations of the port city as two separate entities. To escape this divisive conception of contemporary port cities, this chapter presents a relational visualisation method that is able to analyse the economic interface between port and city. Based on our results, we reflect back on our proposition and argue that the core challenge today for researchers and policy makers is acknowledging the bias of port/city, being arguably a self-fulfilling prophecy. Hence, we turn the idea of (planning the) port/city conflicts into planning the port-city’s strengths and weaknesses.


Chapter 7 – Spatial Restructuring of Port Cities: Periods from Inclusion to Fragmentation and Re-integration of City and Port in Hamburg
by Dirk Schubert

In this chapter three periods of spatial inclusion, fragmentation, and re-integration of port and city functions are analysed with a focus on the Hamburg region and related to corresponding governance structures. First, when the port and city had been a functional and spatial unit until the beginning of the 19th century. Second, a later period of separation in several phases until the 1980s began. Since the 1960s, deindustrialisation and containerisation drove ports away from cities, leaving areas along the old waterfront as a challenge to planners for re-integration of urban and port functions. Finally, since the beginning of the new millennium, a third period arose, when options for a re-mix of port and city became possible again. By analysing these historical phases, it becomes possible to more precisely analyse changing interdependencies between city and port.


Chapter 8 – Governance and Planning Issues in European Waterfront Redevelopment 1999–2019
by José M. Pagés Sánchez and Tom A. Daamen

Since the first redevelopment projects appeared in the 1960s in North-America, urban waterfronts in port cities around the world have experienced continuous spatial and functional change. Waterfront redevelopment started as an opportunity to recover brownfields for urban uses and new relations with the water, but rapidly became a target for investors and politicians to leave their mark on the port city landscape. Too many planners, waterfronts have, thus, become a symbol of capital accumulation, consumerism, and of cities attempting to economically revive or reinvent themselves. Four decades after the first waterfront projects of this kind in Europe, it is possible to evaluate the results of this post-modern urban refurbishing, and most importantly, reflect on the sustainability of the transition that has taken place. Since the publication of an earlier volume on European Port Cities in Transition (Hoyle and Pinder, in The Dock & Harbour Authority 79(887):46–49, 1992), sustainable development has gradually become an important objective in urban and port policies. The aim of this chapter is to assess how European waterfront redevelopment projects are influenced by this objective across the continent. This has been done by making an actor-institutional comparison of projects in six European port cities, following a renewed trend in planning research that seeks to expose and understand the ‘rules of the game’ in urban governance and planning practices. This institutionalist perspective leads to a fresh understanding of port-city relationships in Europe, and the role of recent waterfront projects therein. This account of the 1999–2019 period focuses on how key actors negotiate and attempt to reconcile the inherent tensions involved in planning sustainable waterfront redevelopment schemes, and identify the forces that enable or prevent them to do so.


Chapter 9 – Proposing a Holistic Framework to Assess Sustainability Performance in Seaports
by Lea Fobbe, Rodrigo Lozano and Angela Carpenter

Seaports have increasingly been pressured by the shipping industry and port communities to increase their sustainability efforts and performance. Sustainability reporting has been proposed as a way to assess performance. Although several frameworks have been developed for sustainability reporting, few focus on performance (for example the Graphical Assessment of Sustainability Performance (GRASP)). For seaports, sustainability reporting has mainly focused on coverage of environmental issues, and on the port as an individual organisation. A critical review of assessment approaches was conducted, resulting in the identification of 424 port sustainability-related indicators; these were categorised, synthesised, and then compared with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The findings show differences in the dimensions and number of indicators of the assessment approaches. GRI categories were modified and expanded for the environmental, economic, and social dimensions. Two new assessment categories, ‘port system’ and ‘interlinking issues’, were developed. This chapter proposes the Holistic Assessment of Sustainability Performance in Seaports (HASPS) framework, based on GRASP, and expanding the GRI by the addition of 75 port specific indicators, giving a total of 211 indicators. This will allow seaports to assess their sustainability performance over time, to better communicate their 2ustainability efforts, and to benchmark against other seaports.


Chapter 10 – Analysing Port Community System Network Evolution
by Bening Mayanti, Jussi Kantola, Matteo Natali and Juha Kytola

Ports have played an important role in facilitating exchanges among countries since the day when inland transportation was poor. As ports become hubs for the global supply chain, they have to maintain their competitiveness not only by reassuring their efficiency, reliability, accessibility to the hinterland, and sustainability. In addition, there is a constant challenge from all operational parties of the port to acquire needed information or to trust information received, due to multiple legacy systems and platforms that do not integrate with each other, and to the lack of real-time updates. There are differing agendas between parties and, sometimes, distrust within the multi-stakeholder ecosystem leads to working in silos. This jeopardises seamless data exchange and cooperation across the port value chain, resulting in significant inefficiencies. Port community system (PCS) can enhance communication and simplify administrative process resulting economic and environmental benefit for actors in the supply chain. The invisibility of the benefit, actors’ heterogeneity and significant investment to develop the system resulting in reluctance in implementing PCS. This chapter aims to study the evolutionary mechanism behind the process of PCS network development using lessons learned from industrial symbiosis network development and network trajectories theory. The PCS network development follows a serendipitous and goal-oriented process that can be categorised into three stages: pre-PCS network, PCS network emergence, and PCS network expansion. This chapter contributes to the exploration of network evolution and documents lesson learned to foster PCS implementation.


Chapter 11 – Touristification of European Port-Cities: Impacts on Local Populations and Cultural Heritage
by María J. Andrade and João Pedro Costa

Touristification of European port-cities is a contemporary process of globalisation in the age of the information society, adding cruise and marine specific dynamics to the promotion of cities as products and destinations for short-breaks, congresses or holidays. Port-cities have a long history of investment on the waterfront, adapting these spaces through at least three cycles since industrialisation, in a 50 years process of waterfront regeneration that started in the late 1960s. Touristification corresponds to a new (fourth) stage in a continuous port/city redevelopment process. Global tourism research reveals several undesirable impacts on cities, for example through gentrification (displacement) of local inhabitants or a change of the city’s identity into a generic image, where living conditions are impacted by higher housing prices. Alongside the negative impacts of cruise tourism is the profile of this type of tourist, e.g. as part of the so-called “low-cost tourism”. Confronted with unlimited growth of touristification and its negative impacts, major port-cities want to control this process. Effective monitoring tools, strong administrative coordination, and agile spatial planning and management instruments are determinant for port-cities to respond to the touristification process. Port-cities have struggled to orientate this process to define which types of tourism they want to promote or limit; cruises are part of the equation. In port-cities, touristification demands highly effective spatial planning answers, with inter-sectoral and trans-scale policy answers occurring simultaneously.


Chapter 12 – Analysing Organisational Change Management in Seaports: Stakeholder Perception, Communication, Drivers for, and Barriers to Sustainability at the Port of Gävle
by Rodrigo Lozano, Angela Carpenter and Kaisu Sammalisto

Ports are under increasing pressure to become more sustainable. While, some ports have been including sustainability into their operations; in general, this has been mainly addressed from economic and environmental perspectives and technological or policy-related approaches. There has been little research on organisational change management for sustainability in ports. This chapter analyses organisational change efforts for sustainability at the Port of Gävle. Twenty-three face-to-face interviews were conducted with various stakeholders. The chapter presents the findings and results on a stakeholder materiality matrix, insights on the perception of sustainability by the port stakeholders, the coverage and performance (measured through) ranking of drivers for and the barriers to sustainability of the Port of Gävle. The chapter also shows that stakeholders are important when addressing sustainability and managing organisational changes, where it is important to know the coverage and the performance of drivers for and barriers to change. This way ports can better address sustainability through a holistic approach that encompasses the four dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and time), stakeholders, and the six approaches (legislative, technological, financial, cultural/social, voluntary initiatives, and organisational change management).


Chapter 13 – Integrating Governance and Sustainability: A Proposal Towards More Sustainable Ports
by María Ángeles Fernández-Izquierdo, Idoya Ferrero-Ferrero and María Jesús Muñoz-Torres

Ports are under increasing pressure to become more sustainable. A fundamental requirement to integrate sustainability into all structures, policies, and processes of an organisation, such as a port, is to have corporate governance fully committed to sustainable development. However, sustainability frameworks in the port industry deal mainly with the economic and environmental dimensions, as well as operations and logistics issues, and technological and policy-related approaches, without addressing explicitly governance aspects. In addition, there has been limited research in the field of port sustainability and governance, with studies paying attention to how ports address sustainability from an operational perspective. This chapter is focused on the role of ports’ corporate governance to integrate sustainability into their management systems in order to fill this gap. The objective of this chapter is to define a framework that integrates both sustainability and corporate governance into port authority policies, strategies and activities, as a necessary condition to achieve a more sustainable organisation. The proposed framework has been developed based on the results of a literature review and on the best practices included in international corporate governance references. The framework for Port Authority Sustainability Governance Model (PASGM) places sustainability at the center stage and establishes five action areas aligned with sustainability principles. This chapter contributes to improving the understanding of internal governance elements of port authority and clarifies the links of corporate governance with sustainability. It also provides some guidelines on key issues of governance that should be considered to integrate sustainability in the management system from a strategic perspective.


Chapter 14 – The Changing Interplay Between European Cities and Intermodal Transport Networks (1970s–2010s)
by Justin Berli, César Ducruet, Romain Martin and Sevil Seten

European cities, like most of the world’s cities, are to some degree dependent upon maritime transport for their development, as more than 90% of seaborne trade volume is carried by sea. This also applies to Europe’s external trade. While cities possessing ports play a crucial role in the distribution of goods traffic in such a context, the maritime influence exerted by global trade on non-port, inland cities have not been so far studied from a combined sea-land perspective. The results show a differentiation of the European territory in terms of modal specialisation, core-periphery, polycentricity, and intermodal centrality/accessibility. We map the maritime specialisation of European cities in recent decades, showing that combined sea-land centrality has stable but different relationships according to the type of place considered. The conclusion discusses the outcomes of our results for policy and further research on coupled networks and urban studies.


Chapter 15 – The Separation of Ports from Cities: The Case of Rotterdam
by Carola Hein and Paul Th. van de Laar

Since industrialisation began in the 19th century, some ports have been moving away from the cities that once hosted them. That separation was only possible if the land was available where new port basins, industries, and other infrastructure could be constructed and where port activities could prosper without being restricted by urban functions. The port of Rotterdam represents an extreme example of port-city separation. This chapter shows how the port of Rotterdam transformed from a staple port into a transit port. Port activities moved towards the North Sea in four steps that were related to technological, institutional, and trade pattern changes and changes in port-city relations. Such transitions highlight the close relationships between trade patterns, technological innovations and changing governance patterns. Each expansion required close collaboration between business leaders and the municipality because administrative borders needed to be expanded and infrastructure constructed. The growth also created friction among the various stakeholders in the region. The merchants of the staple markets protected their trades and traditions, whereas the harbour barons that benefited most from the high-volume trans-shipment of bulk commodities pushed the expansion of the port. To illustrate these steps in the separation of port and city, the chapter takes the case of petroleum as a key example. While beneficial for the economic development of the port –and to some degree, the city–the separation of port and city has led to a loss of connection between port and city institutions. The chapter concludes by briefly examining the challenges and opportunities of port and city separation in terms of economic, spatial and cultural development.


Chapter 16 – Integrated Port Cities: The Case of Hamburg
by Michele Acciaro, Katharina Renken and Christopher Dirzka

Many cities around the world are port cities, and yet, industrialisation of port activities and changes in port operations have resulted in the separation between the city and its port is becoming more evident. Some ports have moved away from urbanised areas, while in others fences and security barriers are being erected to separate a city from the water areas. Space is contested, and tension is increasing between urban and industrial use of the waterfront areas. In some port-cities, however, the proximity of city spaces to industrial activities is unavoidable, and managing the relations between port operations and the city becomes one of the main priorities of the port managing companies (PMC). The governance structure and relation of the PMC to the municipalities near the port defines the organisational framework within which the PMC needs to operate in order to find ways to reconcile the tension between urban spaces and the port. This tension requires careful management of port stakeholders, a well-thought communication strategy and the development of specific initiatives aimed at reducing negative external effects associated with port activities. Through the analysis of the ase of the port-city of Hamburg, particularly its smart-port and smart-city strategies, this chapter illustrates the complexity of successfully managing integrated port-cities. The closely-knit collaboration between the Hamburg City-State Municipal Government and its Port Authority have allowed it to overcome some of the issues that emerged in the past, but as port operations change the question is how long the conflict of resource use between a growing city and the third-largest European port can be kept at bay.


Chapter 17 – Societal Integration of Ports and Cities: Case Study on Spanish Ports
by Nuria Nebot Gómez de Salazar and Carlos Rosa-Jiménez
Ports are, frequently, segregated places and fairly inaccessible to local communities. In some cases, the industrial activity is incompatible, for security reasons, with citizens’ uses. In other cases, privatisation of port space has restricted access to a very small part of the population, for example, some marinas. In this sense, many ports are considered barriers that hinder citizens’ access to the sea. A way to address this is through the social integration of ports. Port authorities and administrations are becoming increasingly more aware of the need to incorporate the demands of the local communities, and to develop activities and services that foster the use of the port, rapprochement with the sea and, generally, foster the maritime culture among the citizenry. Previous research regarding the social integration of ports has allowed examples of good practices to be put forward at a European level. This chapter seeks, on the one hand, to discuss different social integration strategies at ports using indicators and parameters from other previous studies; and, on the other hand, to showcase some recent port initiatives as examples of good practices for the port-city social integration along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The chapter proposes seven strategies to structure the research content, each of which is discussed and related to a real initiative or project implemented at ports. The analyses comprise an inventory of innovative solutions that can be implemented at other ports. The aim of the seven strategies is to provide inspiration for other port areas that wish to bring the port and maritime culture to the citizenry and local communities.


Chapter 18 – Socio-economic Costs and Benefits of Seaport Infrastructure Development for a Local Environment. The Case of the Port and the City of Świnoujście
by Izabela Kotowska, Marta Mańkowska, and Michał Pluciński

The positive changes in the relations between a port city and its port, as manifested in sustainable development policies for port cities and seaports, have not managed to eliminate conflicts connected with spatial aspects of seaport development. The conflicts are, to a large extent, connected to an uneven distribution of socio-economic benefits and costs that port operations generate for the local environment. The research in this chapter provides an answer to the question: What impact does the implementation of large infrastructural projects in seaports have on the local community and seaport economy? A comprehensive Seaport’s Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) method was developed for estimating the socio-economic benefits of seaport development, based on the case study of the planned deepwater container terminal in the Świnoujście seaport (in Poland). The results show that 97% of direct benefits are generated for the national economy (global/national level), whereas only slightly above 3% remain in the port city (local level). The main beneficiaries are cargo shippers who consume nearly 90% of the benefits. Concurrently, the full social costs of seaport operations development are borne by the local environment. The balance of the socio-economic benefits and costs, expressed in monetary terms, is nevertheless positive at the local level. The benefits are additionally improved when non-monetary values are (e.g. investment, innovation, transport accessibility, demographic change) are taken into account. The benefits are achieved indirectly and over a long-time horizon, but eventually, they have a positive effect on the structural changes in the local economy and community. In particular, this impacts the cities and regions with less-developed economies, which cope with negative changes in the demographic structure of their local communities—this is exemplified in the case of the Świnoujście seaport.





by & filed under Environment, Governance.

The Medsealitter project, funded by the European Union with over € 2 million, aims to create a collaborative network of marine protected areas – with the support of scientific organizations and NGOs – in order to develop and apply common protocols to manage the impact of plastic waste in the sea, considered among the most serious pollutants for biodiversity in the Mediterranean.


Protecting the Mediterranean from plastic litter


Recent studies have shown that plastics constitute 95% of the waste floating in the Mediterranean or washed ashore on its beaches. Marine litter harms flora and fauna, and has economic repercussions for tourism, fishing and maritime transport.

“I believe that the environmental threat of marine litter is comparable to that of global warming,” says Claudio Valerani, environmental technician for the marine protected area of the Cinque Terre National Park.

The EU is investing in the development of effective and coordinated techniques for locating and reducing sea litter, in order to protect ecosystems and people. Traces of microplastics have recently been found in fish intended for human consumption. The possible consequences for the human body of ingestion of microplastics are not yet fully known, and it is therefore essential to prevent them from entering the food chain. New EU-wide legislation also prohibits the use of disposable plastic products and tackles abandoned fishing gear, which together represent 70 % of all marine litter. These rules will avoid up to €22 billion of environmental damage by 2030 and prevent the emission of 3.4 million tonnes of CO2.






Project facts

  • By 2025, the world’s seas could contain 1 tonne of plastic for every 3 tonnes of fish
  • More than 260 species ingest plastic waste – mostly fish, cetaceans and marine turtles
  • 85% of the Medsealitter budget comes from the European Regional Development Fund through the MED Programme
  • 10 partners from 4 EU countries – Italy, Spain, France and Greece – are involved in the project

Project website:


Source: InvestEU


ESPO is organising its 17th Annual Conference on 28-29 May 2020. This 17th edition of the ESPO Conference is kindly hosted by the Port of Oslo.


On 11 December, the European Commission published the European Green Deal, laying out a commitment for Europe to become the world’s first net zero emission continent by 2050. The Green Deal also refers to increased emission cuts by 2030 and more stringent air quality standards.

The 2020 ESPO Conference will discuss the concrete plans of the Commission to achieve these ambitions. Who does what? How can ports contribute? What are the most cost-effective measures? Which policy measures and which financial instruments are needed? What can other stakeholders do? Is there a coalition of the willing needed?  In short: what is the best green deal for ports?

The 17th edition of the ESPO Conference will also assess what this all means for the port-city relationship. The energy transition and the increasing call of citizens for clean air risks to cast doubt over the positive role ports play for modern cities and their citizens. Under the motto “a good city has a port”, the conference will also identify what ports are offering to cities and local communities, why they are needed and how they are part of the solution.

As usual, the ESPO conference will take you through two days of high-level and thought-provoking presentations from experts combined with high-level policy discussions between the new policy makers in the Commission and Parliament and port industry representatives. These very promising networking events which the Port of Oslo is setting up for the delegates is one of the many reasons why we firmly recommend you to block these dates in your agenda!

More information to come in February 2020 at



by & filed under Bridging R&D and implementation, Environment.

A new global project to prevent and reduce marine plastic litter from shipping and fisheries has been launched today (5 December) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Initial funding for the project is from the Government of Norway.



The GloLitter Partnerships Project agreement was signed by IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim and His Excellency Wegger Chr. Strømmen, Norway’s Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, on Thursday 5 December, 2019. The project aims to prevent and reduce marine plastic litter from shipping and fisheries.

Plastic litter in the oceans is recognised as a major environmental problem. The GloLitter Partnerships Project aims to help shipping and fisheries move to a low-plastics future. GloLitter will assist developing countries to identify opportunities to prevent and reduce marine litter, including plastic litter, from within the maritime transport and fisheries sectors, and to decrease the use of plastics in these industries, including identifying opportunities to re-use and recycle plastics.

The project will consider the availability and adequacy of port reception facilities; look at enhancing awareness of the marine plastics issue within the shipping and fisheries sectors, including seafarers and fishers; and encourage fishing gear to be marked so it can be traced back to its owner if discarded.

These and other actions to reduce plastic litter have already been identified in IMO’s Action Plan to address marine plastic litter from ships, adopted in 2018.

The GloLitter project will develop guidance documents, training material and toolkits to help enforce existing regulations, including IMO’s International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) Annex V. Since 1988, this has prohibited the discharge of plastics, including discarded fishing gear, into the sea from ships.

The project will also promote compliance with relevant FAO instruments (including the Voluntary Guidelines on the Marking of Fishing Gear) and will target waste management in ports. It will, additionally, emphasise implementation and enforcement of IMO’s London Convention/London Protocol regime on dumping of wastes at sea, which requires waste (such as from dredging) to be assessed before permits to dump are granted.

The GloLitter project will include private sector participation through a global industry alliance and is seeking partners from major maritime and fisheries companies.

“Plastic litter in the oceans is harming fish, marine mammals and seabirds and threatening the entire marine ecosystem. IMO has been at the forefront of addressing this issue from the perspective of shipping and dumping at sea and this global project will further strengthen efforts within the fishing and maritime transport sectors to pilot, demonstrate and test best practices to deal with marine plastic litter. Our ambition is to move the maritime transport and fisheries sectors towards a future with no plastic waste entering the sea, and to share our successes with other sectors that could be encouraged to strengthen their efforts too,” said Mr. Kitack Lim, Secretary-General, IMO.

‘In the fight against marine litter, it is vital to strengthen the capacity to prevent pollution from shipping and fisheries in developing countries. Norway is therefore allocating NOK 40 million to a new project under IMO, which has a great deal of expertise in the field,” said Norway’s Minister of International Development Dag-Inge Ulstein.

Dr. Matthew Camilleri, Head of FAO’s Fishing Operations and Technology Branch, said the partnership between FAO and IMO, further strengthened by the support of the Government of Norway, will enhance technical assistance to developing countries and increase their capacity to develop strategies for reducing marine litter from fishing operations, and to implement the Voluntary Guidelines on the Marking of Fishing Gear.

“The fisheries sector has an important role in reducing pollution of the marine environment by plastic litter, particularly from abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear, and should seek to develop fishing port facilities and schemes for sustainable waste processing, recycling and re-use of materials which contribute to marine litter,” Dr. Camilleri said.

Ten countries, from five high priority regions (Asia, Africa, Caribbean, Latin America and Pacific) will be selected to spearhead the project. At country level, GloLitter will expand government and port management capacities and instigate legal, policy and institutional reforms. Regional cooperation will also be enhanced.

The project is intended to be a multi-donor programme. The initial funding of NOK 40 million (approximately US$4.5 million) from the Government of Norway provides for a 3.5-year project, executed by IMO in partnership with FAO.

‘Shipping and fisheries are a major source of marine litter, and Norway has considerable knowledge in this area. Through the GloLitter project, we will contribute to strengthen international efforts to fight plastic litter from shipping and fisheries. The Government is also working to achieve a comprehensive global agreement to combat marine plastic litter from all sources,’ said Norway’s Minister of Climate and Environment Ola Elvestuen.

Collaboration with other international, regional and national partners through additional in-kind co-financing is envisaged, from the private sector as well as beneficiary countries. The planned Global Industry Alliance (GIA) will link with the UN Global Compact, which has adopted Sustainable Ocean Principles for responsible business practices.

The GloLitter Partnerships Project follows the successful implementation of a similar model of cooperation and collaboration, in the GloBallast, GloMEEP and GloFouling projects. This has been referred to as the “Glo-X” model – which combines national, regional and global efforts, combined with public-private partnerships to push research and development and capacity building.

The GloLitter Partnerships project will directly help to achieve one of the of the specific targets in the global Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 – to “prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution, by 2025”.

The GloLitter Partnerships Project agreement was signed by IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim and His Excellency Wegger Chr. Strømmen, Norway’s Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, on Thursday 5 December, 2019.


FAO – The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department brings together relevant actors to discuss issues related to international cooperation and multi-stakeholder approaches to fisheries and aquaculture management.

IMO – the International Maritime Organization – is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships.


19 – 20 February 2020
Hilton Canary Wharf,


Tangible results on the use of blockchain, automation, datasharing and 5G

Two day event bringing together the movers, shakers and stakeholders across the supply chain to discuss how to integrate smarter operations across port and terminal activity.


Automation. Digitalisation. Supply chain optimisation.

Maintaining a competitive advantage in a fast-pace digital environment remains one of the biggest challenges facing ports and terminal operators today. Which trends are set to shape the future?







source: Greenport

Under construction at the Rosetti Marino shipyard in Italy, as part of the European co-financed Poseidon Med II project, the SBBT is due for delivery later this year. With a load capacity of 4,000 m3 of LNG and 1,000 m3 of Marine Diesel Oil (MDO), it will mainly operate in the North-Adriatic Sea, and will be the first vessel of its type in the Mediterranean region that will be used for bunkering.


SSBT vessel design

SSBT vessel design. Image: Hellenic Lloyd’s S.A.


George Polychroniou, executive director strategy & business development at DEPA and project leader of PMII commented: “An important Poseidon Med II milestone, the SBBT prototype vessel has been assigned for construction. Poseidon Med II has laid the foundation for further establishment of LNG in the Eastern Mediterranean with the construction of new bunkering vessels in the region.”

Poseidon Med II partner, CMV PANFIDO & C. S.r.l. has assigned the design of the vessel to the Iberian SENER engineering and technology company.

The SBBT vehicle consists of a non-propelled Pontoon for the supply of LNG and MDO with a 3knots pull force and a Dual Tug as a power unit with a dual-fuel Niigata engine (LNG & MDO) with a bollard pull of 65 tonnes-force. The dual tug will have an overall length of 37m and will be coupled with a cargo unit for bunkers.

Poseidon Med II project is a practical roadmap that aims to bring about the wide adoption of LNG as a safe, environmentally efficient and viable alternative fuel for shipping and help the East Mediterranean marine transportation propel towards a low-carbon future.

The project, which is co-funded by the European Union, involves three countries Greece, Italy, and Cyprus, six European ports (Piraeus, Patras, Lemesos, Venice, Heraklion, Igoumenitsa) as well as the Revithoussa LNG terminal. The project brings together top experts from the marine, energy and financial sectors to design an integrated LNG value chain and establish a well-functioning and sustainable LNG market.

source: Greenport